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There are few successful classic open loop fare systems. They operate efficiently in transits with gated access to trains, on stationary validators. Besides, they can only operate successfully when most of the burden is taken by the parallel closed loop systems.
How many transits have open loop on buses? The are only two of them: Transport for London and Utah Transit Authority. Open loop card acceptance is limited on buses in these systems in the following way:
- Utah Transit Authority and Transport for London allow flat adult fares only.
- Open loop cards are used rarely on buses because all aforementioned systems have ubiquitous and advanced close loop cards. Therefore, the wireless communication cost and fraud risks related to open loop transactions are limited.
The following open loop pilots in the U.S.A. have been discontinued: BART, CTA, PATCO, SEPTA, NJ, and WMATA
|Transit||Open loop volume on stationary validators compared to closed loop||Open loop volume on moveable validators (buses) compared to closed loop||Distance-based and non-adult fares with open loop||Bank cards|
|Transit for London||Very high||Small||No||No|
|UTAH Transit Authority||High||Small||No||No|